Tag Archives: struct

Structs: More than just an easy way to process XML streams


During the sixties of the previous century IBM’s Charles Goldfarb et al. developed, what can be considered now, as the first Markup Language. From his Generalized Markup Language (GML) the more generally known Standard Generalized Markup Language SGML was developed.  Several criteria were defined for this SGML. One of these criteria is that SGML should describe a structure and attributes. By describing it this way it was (and is) much more likely that data can be processed, using (future) information technologies. SGML was designed to process huge documents, initially used by the US government. SGML was often experienced as quite complex and the advent of XML-structured data made it possible to use the concept of structured data for smaller documents as well.

Nowadays XML is indispensable in information technology. XML (and its “mutants” like JSON) can be considered as the “de facto” standard for data communication between applications, using web services and more. In multi-tiered architectures XML should be used for data communication. Each development tool must be able to process XML-like data streams as efficient as possible. Considering XML strings as a “simple” string data type is far too easy to process XML streams in a fast and development-friendly way.

Initially Uniface defined scripting code (formerly known as Proc) that was geared towards the processing of XML. Scripting commands like XMLsave(to place component data in an XML stream) and XMLload (to load data from an XML stream into a component)  are good examples of this kind of scripting code. With the fact that the “data world” was getting more and more complex, these simple statements no longer covered the need for efficient coding. Many Uniface developers used string manipulation coding to process more complex data structures like XML and JSON.

A new paradigm was needed for Uniface to process XML, to stay on top of being (and staying) the number one productivity development tool. With Uniface 9.5 and 9.6 the implementation of the Struct datatype, in combination with the development of scripting code to manipulate Struct datatype variables and parameters (ie “Struct”), was the answer.  A Struct can be defined as a tree-like data structure, kept in memory, that is used to dynamically manipulate complex data and transform it from or to XML or Uniface component data. Variables of type struct are used to access the Struct. Scripting code commands, access operators, and information functions enables the developers to create, build, and manipulate the Struct.

The application of Struct, initially designed to process complex and structured data, has many more options. The creativity of the Uniface software developer is the limit for the application of Structs.  Here is a short list of applications for Struct. The list is just a limited one and without any doubt there are many more applications for Structs.

  • There is complex parameter support of web services and transformations of SOAP messages. All XML strings can, with only one statement, being transformed into a Struct. Struct can be transformed into component data, after some manipulation, if needed.
  • The processing of entities and multiple occurrences has been made much easier and faster. Component data can be transformed into Struct with one command. Because Struct is kept in memory manipulation of is very fast.
  • Software development according to the “multi-tier” paradigm is more straight-forward now. In a well-developed software application communication between the different tiers will be handled using XML, JSON or another XML-like data format. The transformation from component data into Struct is a very simple one.
  • Exchange of JavaScript objects is no longer a serious issue. Uniface has a JavaScript API to enable the development of client-side code for web-deployed applications. JavaScript uses JSON strings for data exchange a lot. Uniface supports the transformation between JSON and Struct. Easy to apply this on communication between a browser-based presentation tier and its server-based back end.
  • Uniface lists can be replaced by the use of Structs. Uniface developers that have developed Uniface list into list (into lists into lists… and so on) know that it can be very complicated and hazardous, using “goldkey ;” and goldkey !” for the lists inside lists definitions. Structs make live much easier.
  • Complex data exchange between entries, operations, and components can be implemented. Both parameters and variables are supported by the struct datatype. Using parameters makes it possible to exchange Struct to-and-from entries, local operations and public operations.


This was only a limited bulleted list of possibilities that the newly developed Struct data type offers the Uniface developer with Uniface 9.6. I am very convinced that there are many more creative applications for Structs, please show me!

The Struct and its references


Hi bloggers,

For the ones that do not know me, I’m Gerton Leijdekker, Usability Consultant and Lead Developer for the Uniface product line in the Uniface Lab in Amsterdam. My intention is to blog about technical subjects, so this first blog will be about the Struct.

With Uniface we always try to keep things simple with the intention to keep it a productive tool; don’t bother with complex stuff, simply plug in the features you need, some ProcScript to glue them together, and done. But simplicity also has a downside, because now and then you just need more…

Some features take the enablement approach, where the functionality can be used to solve a wide range of problems. But where simplicity adds limitations, flexibility adds complexity and complex things are most of the time harder to understand. The Struct is one of them: powerful, flexible, useful … but complex.

The Struct is introduced in Uniface 9.5 and can solve a variation of challenges, like data transformations, data communication, and data processing. The Struct has no format limitations and therefore can handle any data format, whether it is Entities, XML, JSON, or your own custom format. But in all cases it helps if you fully understand what a Struct is and how it works.

Currently, I’m working on the new Uniface 10 IDE and we use the Struct for almost everything. It replaces entity, occurrence, list, and xmlstream parameters and is heavily used for data cashing purposes. But although I was involved during the original design of the Struct, now that I need to use it, I still find it a challenging thing to use and it took me some time to fully grasp its concepts. In this first blog, I will focus on its core technical concepts being the Struct itself, the Struct Node, the Struct Variable, and the Struct Node Reference. To me it was very helpful once I fully understood those.

The info in this blog is also being used to update the Uniface Library, but remember, you read it here first. 🙂

The Struct

The Struct is a collection of objects, called Struct Nodes. These Struct Nodes are hierarchically organized, hence the term ‘struct’. Every Struct Node can have i/o refers to 0, 1, or more child Struct Nodes. The Struct always has only one root Struct Node.

The image shows two Structs as the reside somewhere in Uniface memory:

Struct Image 1

The Struct Variable

You can declare a struct variable the way you like any other variables, but unlike to variables of type String, Numeric, or Boolean, the Struct Variable does NOT contain the data itself; the Struct Variable only refers to the struct data that (as said) resides somewhere in Uniface memory. To be more specific, a Struct Variable refers to the root Struct Node of a struct dataset making this dataset the thing we call ‘Struct’.

The image shows two Struct variables referring to the root node of a Struct.

Struct Image 2


A Struct Variable can actually refer to multiple Structs or to none at all.  To be specific, a Struct Variable can refer to 0, 1, or more Structs.

The image shows a single Struct Variable containing 2 references to two Structs.

Struct Image 3

The opposite is also possible: multiple references to the same Struct.

The image shows two Struct Variables referring to the same Struct. One has to refer to the root node, the other refers to some node in the same Struct making it a kind of sub-Struct or nested Struct. More about this construction later.

Struct Image 4


Struct Variable declaration

The declaration of a Struct Variable, does not create the Struct, it only creates a Struct Variable with zero references. This variable can now be used to either create a Struct from scratch or have it referred to an already existing Struct.

The image shows two Struct Variables that do not refer to any Struct.

Struct Image 5


Struct creation

There are two ways to create a Struct.

The first is by making use of the Proc function $newstruct. This Proc function creates a single Struct Node and returns a reference to it. If this reference is then assigned to a Struct Variable, a Struct consisting of a single node, has been created.

The image shows the code used create a Struct with only one node. This Struct is now accessible via the Struct Variable.

Struct Image 6


The second is by making use of the conversion Proc statements like componenttostruct, xmltostruct, and jsontostruct. Maybe more conversion statements will follow in the future. A struct conversion function uses the provided data in some external format and generates a (huge) set of hierarchical related Struct nodes that logically represent the data. The Proc instruction returns a reference to the root node of this Struct which is typically assigned to a Struct Variable. This Struct is now accessible via the Struct Variable.

Struct Image 7


Struct member creation

To create a sub node, or a Struct member, you also use the Proc function $newstruct, but instead of assigning the newly created node to a Struct Variable, you assign it to a member a specified by its name.

The image shows the code used create the initial Struct and then how members are created.

The image also shows how an existing member is assigned to a Struct Variable, creating a sub-struct or nested Struct.

Struct Image 8


Struct deletion

A Struct that is no longer referenced by a Struct Variable, and therefore not accessible, is automatically deleted from Uniface memory.

The image shows that setting “” to the Struct Variable that refers the root node of the Struct will have as a consequence that the Struct will deleted. A Struct Variable running out of scope has the same effect.

Struct Image 9


The image shows that deleting a Struct does not affect any sub or nested Structs. The sub Struct, or nested Struct, has its own variable referring to its root node (this is what makes it a Struct) and therefore is still referenced and not deleted.

Struct Image 10


Struct parameters

Uniface also supports Struct Parameters. The Struct Parameter is like the Struct Variable, it works with references.

Image a Proc function that takes one struct parameter as input, it checks all members of the referenced Struct and returns references to the members that are leaves as Struct out parameter. The image shows the result after calling this function, where myStructVar1 refers to the root node of the Struct and myStructVar2 refers to all leaves in the same Struct as detected by the function.

But more about Struct Parameters next time.

Struct Image 11

That’s it for now, next time more about passing structs by reference and by value. Gerton's Emoticon